- Holocaust Period Because of its location and its large and active port, Genoa was an important center for the assistance of Jews in Italy. Until the very last minute, some Jews managed to find boats and escape from the city. One hundred fifty-three Jews were arrested and deported from the Province of Genoa during the German occupation of Italy. They included many refugees who had fled from Italian-occupied southeastern France at the time of the Italian armistice with the Allies on September 8, 1943, on their way to Switzerland or to the regions of Italy under the Allies. Many Jewish refugees gathered in Genoa because the city was the headquarters of the Delegazione Assistenza Emigrati Ebrei (DELASEM), which coordinated assistance and rescue programs. The Genovese office of DELASEM was headed initially by Lelio Vittorio Valobra, who later fled to Switzerland and continued to work from there, with raffaele cantoni , to support the organization's activities. Massimo Teglio, a particularly courageous Genovese Jew, remained on the scene and had a central role in helping both Italian and foreign Jews in danger of arrest. Teglio worked closely with Cardinal Pietro Boetto (1871–1946), the archbishop of Genoa, and his secretary, Don Francesco Repetto. Don Repetto recruited local priests and also created a regional rescue network, with help from the archbishop of Turin and priests from other northern Italian cities. The hunt for Jews began on November 2, 1943, when two German police agents entered the offices of the Jewish community and forced the custodians, Linda and Bino Polacco, to turn over membership lists and summon members to a meeting at the synagogue the following morning. Many members had already left the city, but a majority of those arrested in Genoa were seized at this time. Only a few members who received the summons were able to escape, thanks to a warning received from Teglio. Rabbi Riccardo Pacifici, who until the last moment tried to help refugee Jews, was captured in the Galleria Mazzini, also on November 3. He died at Auschwitz, probably gassed upon arrival on December 11. (Alberto Cavaglion (2nd ed.) -Contemporary Period At the end of World War II, 1,108 Jews were left in Genoa. Subsequently, the Jewish population maintained its size, notwithstanding a constant outnumbering of deaths over births, and in 1965 it numbered 1,036 persons out of a total of 840,000 inhabitants. The port of Genoa was the transit center for various groups of Jewish emigrants who came mainly from Eastern Europe and were heading for Israel. In early 2000s the community numbered a few hundred, operating a synagogue and a Jewish school. The review La Fiamma ("The Flame") was published monthly. (Sergio DellaPergola) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Milano, Bibliotheca, index, S.V. Genova; Roth, Italy, index; idem, in: Speculum, 25 (1950), 190–7; idem, Jews in the Renaissance (1959), 155; R. Pacifici, Nuovo Tempio di Genova con illustrazioni e notizie storiche nella comunità nei secoli XVII e XVIII (1939); Perreau, in: Vessillo Israelitico, 29 (1881), 12–14, 37–40, 70–73; D.W. Amram, Makers of Hebrew Books in Italy (1909), 266ff.; A. Marx, Studies in Jewish History and Booklore (1944), 312; S. Jona, Persecuzione degli ebrei a Genova (1965); Musso, G.G., "Documenti su Genova e gli ebrei tra il 'Quattro e il 'Cinquecento," RMI, 36 (1970) 426–435. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G.G. Musso, "Per la storia degli ebrei in Genova nella seconda meta del cinquecento: Le vicende genovesi di R. Josef Hakohen," in: Carpi (1967), 101–11; C. Brizzolari, Gli ebrei nella storia di Genova (1971); G.N. Zazzu, "Genova e gli ebrei nel basso Medio Evo," RMI, 40 (1974), 248–302; G.N. Zazzu, "Juifs dans le territoire génois au bas moyen-âge," in: WCJS, 6 (1975), 143–51; A. Agosto, "L'Archivio di stato di Genova e le fonti relative alla storia degli Ebrei genovesi dal XV al XVIII secolo," in: Italia Judaica, 2 (1986), 91–98; M. Balard, "Les transports maritimes génois vers la Terre Sainte," in: I comuni italiani (1986), 141–74; M.L. Favreau-Lilie, "Friedenssicherung und Konfliktbegrenzung; Genua, Pisa und Venedig in Akkon, ca. 1200–1224," in: I comuni italiani (1986), 429–47; B.Z. Kedar, "Genoa's Golden Inscription in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; a Case for the Defence," in: I comuni italiani (1986), 317–35; S. Origone, "Genova, Costantinopoli e il Regno di Gerusalemme (prima metà sec. XIII)," in: I comuni italiani (1986), 281–316; G. Pistarino, "Genova e il Vicino Oriente nell'epoca del Regno Latino di Gerusalemme," in: I comuni italiani (1986), 57–139; R. Urbani, "Nuovi documenti sulla formazione della "Nazione ebrea" nel Genovesato durante il XVII secolo," in: Italia Judaica, 2 (1986), 193–209; R. Urbani, "Gli Eccellentissimi Protettori della nazione ebrea a Genova (1658–1797)," in: Italia Judaica, 3 (1989), 197–201; R. Urbani, "Considerazioni sull'insediamento ebraico genovese (1600–1750)," in: Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria, 29:1 (1989), 305–37; O. Limor, "Missionary Merchants; Three Medieval Anti-Jewish Works from Genoa," in: Journal of Medieval History 17:1 (1991), 35–51; G.N. Zazzu, Sepharad addio, 1492: I profughi ebrei dalla spagna al "ghetto" di Genova, Genova 1991; R. Urbani, "Indizi documentari sulla figura di Joseph Ha Cohen e della sua famiglia nella Genova del XVI secolo," in: E andammo dove il vento ci spines (1992), 59–67; R. Urbani, "La riammissione degli ebrei in Genova del 1752; il carteggio tra la Repubblica e la Curia Romana," in: Wezo't le-Angelo (1993), 573–91; C. Bricarelli, Una gioventù offesa: ebrei genovesi ricordano (1995); G. Jehel, "Jews and Muslims in Medieval Genoa; from the Twelfth to the Fourteenth Century," in: Mediterranean Historical Review, 10:1–2 (1995), 120–32; B.Z. Kedar, "A Vaulted East-West Street in Acre's Genoese Quarter?," in: Atiqot, 26 (1995), 105–11; G.N. Zazzu, Una gioventù offesa: ebrei genovesi ricordano (1995); E. Parma, "Il parato pontificale seicentesco di Genova in San Salvatore di Gerusalemme," in: Le vie del Mediterraneo (1996), 35–43; S. Ravera, "Jacopo da Varagine, San Giovanni Battista e le crociate," in: Le vie del Mediterraneo (1996), 13–17; R. Urbani, The Jews in Genoa (1999). HOLOCAUST PERIOD: C. Brizzolari, Genova nella seconda guerra mondiale. Una città in guerra (1938–1943), 2 vols (1977–78); G.B. Varnier, "Un vescovo per la guerra: L'azione pastorale di Pietro Boetto, arcivescovo di Genova (1938–1946)," in: B. Gariglio (ed.), Cattolici e Resistenza nell'Italia settentrionale (1997), 33–57; S. Antonini, Delasem. Storia della più grande organizzazione ebraica italiana di soccorso (2000).
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
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